What conditions cause abnormal vaginal bleeding?- Abnormal vaginal bleeding in women who ovulate regularly, commonly, involves excessive bleeding, often, irregular, or reduced. Some of the general conditions that produce each of these symptoms are discussed below.
Very heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia)
Very heavy /severe vaginal bleeding, called menorrhagia, is menstrual bleeding greater than 5 tablespoons per month. This condition occurs in approximately 10% of women. The most common pattern of menorrhagia is excessive bleeding that occurs in the regular menstrual cycles and with normal ovulation.
There are several important reasons that menorrhagia should be evaluated by a doctor. First, menorrhagia can lead to distress emotional of a woman and her physical symptoms, such as severe spasticity. Second, blood loss can be so severe / heavy that it causes a number of dangerously low blood (anemia), which can lead to medical complications and symptoms such as dizziness and fainting. Third, there can be dangerous causes of menorrhagia who require more urgent treatment.
The causes are benign (not cancerous) of menorrhagia include:
- Uterine fibroids (benign tumors of smooth muscle tissue),
- Endometrial polyps (small benign growths that protruding into the womb),
- Intrauterine devices (IUD’s),
- An under-active thyroid function (hypothyroidism),
- An autoimmune disorder called systemic lupus erythematosus,
- Blood clotting disorders such as derived / inherited bleeding disorders, and
- Certain medications, especially those that interfere with blood clotting.
Although it is not common, menorrhagia can be a sign of endometrial cancer. Potentially precancerous condition known as endometrial hyperplasia may also lead abnormal vaginal bleeding. This situation is more common in women older than 40 years.
Although there are many causes of menorrhagia, in most women, the specific cause of menorrhagia is not found even after a full medical evaluation. These women are said to have dysfunctional bleeding womb. Although no specific cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding was found in women with dysfunctional bleeding womb, there are treatments available to reduce the severity of the condition.
Too many menstrual periods (polymenorrhea)
Frequent abnormal menstrual periods (polymenorrhea) can be caused by certain diseases transmitted sexually or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (such as chlamydia or gonorrhea) that cause inflammation of the womb (uterus). This condition is called pelvic inflammatory disease. Endometriosis is a condition of unknown cause that can lead to pelvic pain and polymenorrhea. Sometimes, the cause of polymenorrhea is not clear, in cases where women are said to have dysfunctional bleeding womb.
Menstrual periods irregular periods (metrorrhagia)
Irregular periods (metrorrhagia) can be caused by benign growths in the cervix, such as cervical polyps. The cause of these growths is usually not known. Metrorrhagia may also be caused by infections of the womb (endometritis) and the use of birth control pills (oral contraceptives). Sometimes after an evaluation, a female doctor may determine that metrorrhagia is not having an identifiable cause and that further evaluation is not necessary at the time.
Perimenopause is the period of time close to the menopausal transition. It is often characterized by irregular menstrual cycles, including menstrual periods at irregular intervals and variations in the amount of blood flow. The irregular menstruation may precede the actual onset of menopause (defined as absence of periods for one year) by several years.
A reduced amount or duration of menstrual flow (hypomenorrhea)
An overactive thyroid function (hypothyroidism) or certain kidney diseases can both cause hypomenorrhea. Oral pills to prevent pregnancy can also cause hypomenorrhea. It is important for women to know that menstrual periods lighter, shorter, or even absence as a result of taking birth control pills do not indicate that the effects of pregnancy prevention of birth control pills is not enough. Actually, many women appreciate the “side effects” from oral medications to prevent pregnancy.
Bleeding between menstrual periods (intermenstrual bleeding)
Women who are ovulating normally can experience light bleeding (sometimes referred to as “spotting”) between menstrual periods. Birth control Methods hormonally as well as the use of an IUD for contraception may sometimes lead to light bleeding between periods. Physiological stress, certain medications such as anticoagulant drugs, and fluctuations in hormone levels are all possible causes of light bleeding between periods. Other conditions that cause abnormal menstrual bleeding, or bleeding in women who do not ovulate regularly may also be the cause of intermenstrual bleeding.